All biological agents are regulated for export. Agents may not be exported to denied parties (restricted persons), for prohibited end-uses (e.g., biological weapons), or to sanctioned countries.
- Email EHS with the name of the institution, location (city and country), and name of the end-user(s) that the material will be exported to. The information will be checked against a database to determine if the recipient is a denied person, sanctioned entity/institution, or prohibited end-user.
- Items may be shipped only for legitimate scientific or clinical purposes. Contact EHS Research Safety (352-392-1591) with any questions or concerns about intended use by the recipient.
- If you plan to ship any materials (even items not listed below) to Cuba, Iran, Sudan, Syria, or North Korea you must contact EHS Research Safety (352-392-1591) & the Division of Research Compliance (352- 392-9174) first.
Export License Requirements
Per the US Export Administration Regulations (EAR; Category 1 – Materials, Chemicals, Microorganisms and Toxins), a license will be required to export bioagents listed on the Commerce Control List (CCL), reproduced below. Other export controls may apply for possession and use in the U.S. For more information see the UF Office of Research web page on Export Controls.
Note: Export Administration Regulations control all biological agents and toxins listed below, regardless of quantity or attenuation. While many of these items are select agents, those preceded by an asterisk (*) are not, but still require an export permit.
This list is subject to change (Current as of September 27, 2016).
Human and Animal Pathogens (ECCN 1C351)
- African horse sickness virus
- African swine fever virus
- *Andes virus
- Avian influenza (AI) viruses identified as having high pathogenicity (HP), as follows:
- AI viruses that have an intravenous pathogenicity index (IVPI) in 6-week old chickens >1.2 or
- AI viruses that cause at least 75% mortality in 4- to 8-week old chickens infected IV.
Note: Avian influenza viruses of the H5 or H7 subtype that do not have either of the characteristics described above should be sequenced to determine whether multiple basic amino acids are present at the cleavage site of the haemagglutinin molecule (HAO). If the amino acid motif is similar to that observed for other HPAI isolates, then the isolate being tested should be considered HPAI and the virus is controlled for export.
- *Blue tongue virus
- Chapare virus
- *Chikungunya virus
- *Choclo virus
- Classical swine fever (Hog cholera virus)
- Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever virus
- *Dengue fever virus
- *Dobrava-Belgrade virus
- Eastern equine encephalitis virus
- Ebola virus
- Foot and mouth disease virus
- Goat pox virus
- Guanarito virus
- *Hantaan virus
- Hendra virus (Equine morbillivirus)
- *Japanese encephalitis virus
- Junin virus
- Kyasanur Forest disease virus
- *Laguna Negra virus
- Lassa fever virus
- *Louping ill virus
- Lujo virus
- Lumpy skin disease virus
- *Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus
- Machupo virus
- Marburg virus
- Monkeypox virus
- *Murray Valley encephalitis virus
- Newcastle disease virus
- Nipah virus
- Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus
- *Oropouche virus
- Peste des petits ruminants virus
- Porcine Teschovirus
- *Powassan virus
- Rabies virus and all other members of the Lyssavirus genus
- 1918 pandemic influenza virus – reconstructed replication competent forms containing any portion of the coding regions of all 8 gene segments.
- Rift Valley fever virus
- Rinderpest virus
- *Rocio virus
- Sabia virus
- *Seoul virus
- SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV)
- Sheep pox virus
- *Sin Nombre virus
- *St. Louis encephalitis virus
- Swine Herpesvirus 1 (Pseudorabies virus; Aujeszky’s disease)
- Swine vesicular disease virus
- Tickborne encephalitis virus (Far eastern subtype, formerly Russian Spring-Summer encephalitis virus). Tickborne encephalitis virus (Siberian subtype, formerly West Siberian virus)
- Variola virus
- Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus
- *Vesicular stomatitis virus
- *Western equine encephalitis virus
- *Yellow fever virus
Bacterial and Rickettsial Agents
- Bacillus anthracis
- Brucella abortis
- Brucella melitensis
- Brucella suis
- Burkholderia mallei (Pseudomonas mallei)
- Burkholderia pseudomallei (Pseudomonas pseudomallei)
- *Chlamydophila psittaci (formerly Chlamydia psittaci)
- Clostridium argentinense (formerly Clostridium botulinum Type G), botulinum neurotoxin producing strains
- Clostridium baratii, botulinum neurotoxin producing strains
- Clostridium botulinum
- Clostridium butyricum, botulinum neurotoxin producing strains
- *Clostridium perfringens, epsilon toxin producing types
- Coxiella burnetii
- Francisella tularensis
- Mycoplasma capricolum subspecies capripneumoniae (“strain F38”)
- Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies mycoides SC (small colony, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia)
- Rickettsia prowazekii
- *Salmonella typhi
- *Shiga toxin producing Eschericia coli (STEC; a.k.a. enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) or verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC)) of serogroups O26, O45, O103, O104, O111, O121, O145, O157 and other Shiga toxin producing serogroups
- *Shigella dysenteriae
- *Vibrio cholerae
- Yersinia pestis
Biological Toxins and subunits thereof
- Botulinum toxins
- *Cholera toxin
- *Clostridium perfringens alpha, beta 1, beta 2, epsilon and iota toxins
- Diacetosyscirpenol toxin
- *HT-2 toxin
- *Microcystin (Cyanginosin)
- *Modeccin toxin
- *Shiga toxin
- Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins, hemolysin alpha toxin, and toxic shock syndrome toxin (formerly Staphylococcus enterotoxin F)
- T-2 toxin
- *Verotoxin and other Shiga-like ribosome inactivating proteins
- *Viscum Album Lectin 1 (Viscumin)
- *Volkensin toxin
- *Coccidioides immitis
- 2.*Coccidioides posadasii
Plant Pathogens (ECCN 1C354)
- *Andean potato latent virus (Potato Andean latent tymovirus)
- *Clavibacter michiganensis subspecies sepedonicus (Corynebacterium michiganensis subspecies sepedonicum or Corynebacterium sepedonicum)
- *Cochliobolus miyabeanus (Helminthosporium oryzae)
- *Colletotrichium kahawae (Colletotrichium coffeanum var. virulans)
- *Magnaporthe oryzae (Pyricularia oryzae)
- *Microcyclus ulei (Dothidella ulei)
- Peronosclerospora philippinensis (Peronosclerospora sacchari)
- Phoma glycinicola (formerly Pyrenochaeta glycines)
- *Potato spindle tuber viroid
- *Puccinia graminis ssp. graminis var. graminis/Puccina graminis ssp. graminis car. stakmanii (Puccinia graminis [syn. Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici])
- *Puccinia striiformis (Puccinia glumarum)
- Ralstonia solanacearum, race 3, biovar 2 (Burkholderia solanacearum, race 3, biovar 2)
- Raythayibactor toxicus
- Sclerphthora rayssiae var. zeae
- Synchytrium endobioticum
- *Thecaphora solani
- *Tilletia indica
- *Xanthomonas albilineans
- *Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri A) (Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri)
- Xanthomonas oryzae
Genetic Elements and Genetically Modified Organisms (ECCN 1C353)
- Genetic elements that contain nucleic acid sequences associated with the pathogenicity of microorganisms controlled by 1C351and 1C354.
- Genetic elements that contain nucleic acid sequences coding for any of the “toxins” controlled by 1C351.c or “sub-units of toxins” thereof.
Genetically Modified Organisms
- Genetically modified organisms that contain nucleic acid sequences associated with the pathogenicity of microorganisms controlled by 1C351 and 1C354.
- Genetically modified organisms that contain nucleic acid sequences coding for any of the “toxins” controlled by 1C351.c or “sub-units of toxins” thereof.
- “Genetic elements” include, inter alia, chromosomes, genomes, plasmids, transposons, and vectors, whether genetically modified or unmodified, or chemically synthesized in whole or in part.
- This ECCN does not control nucleic acid sequences associated with the pathogenicity of enterohaemorrhagic Eschericia coli, serotype O157 and other verotoxin producing strains, except those nucleic acids that contain coding for the verotoxin or its sub-units.
- “Nucleic acid sequences associated with the pathogenicity of any of the microorganisms controlled by 1C351 or 1C354” means any sequence specific to the relevant controlled microorganism that:
- In itself or through its transcribed or translated products represents a significant hazard to human, animal or plant health; or
- Is known to enhance the ability of a microorganism controlled by 1C351 or 1C354, or any other organism into which it may be inserted or otherwise integrated, to cause serious harm to human, animal or plant health.
- “Genetically modified organisms” include organisms in which the genetic material (nucleic acid sequences) has been altered in a way that does not occur naturally by mating and/or natural recombination, and encompasses those produced artificially in whole or in part.
International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR)
US State Department Regulations, Part 121, The US Munitions List, control the export of biological materials regulated as “defense articles”. See Category XIV: Toxicological Agents including Chemical, Biological Agents, and Associated Equipment . MULTIPLE Export Controls, INCLUDING a License will be required to export, use, or possess the following:
(b) Biological agents and biologically derived substances specifically developed, configured, adapted, or modified for the purpose of increasing their capability to produce casualties in humans or livestock, degrade equipment or damage crops.
(f) Equipment and its components, parts, accessories, and attachments specifically designed or modified for military operations and compatibility with military equipment as follows:
- The dissemination, dispersion or testing of the biological agents listed in paragraph (b);
- The detection, identification, warning or monitoring of the biological agents listed in paragraph (b);
- Sample collection and processing of the biological agents listed in paragraph (b);
- Individual protection against the biological agents listed in paragraph (b);
- Collective protection against the biological agents listed in paragraph (b);
- Decontamination or remediation of the biological agents listed in paragraph (b).
Additional items associated with, or specific to, the biological agents listed in paragraph (b) are also controlled under the ITAR including medical countermeasures (pre- and post-treatments, vaccines, antidotes, medical diagnostics); modeling or simulation tools; equipment, components, parts, accessories and attachments, exclusive of incinerators specifically designed/modified for the destruction of biological agents in paragraph (b); technical data and defense services.